Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
Oxford Reference Online
Search dozens of Oxford University reference books.
Why Use Reference?
Encyclopedias and and other reference works provide background information. This is a selection of African history-related encyclopedias and reference works. For other sources please search the Centre Library Catalog or ask a reference librarian.
Online Reference Sources
Encyclopedia Britannica Online This link opens in a new window
Online equivalent of the printed Encyclopedia Britannica plus numerous supplementary resources.
Europa World (Europa World Yearbook Online) This link opens in a new window
In-depth country profiles (summary of history, current events, government directory, statistics, and more). Choose countries from the drop-down menu at the top.
Comprehensive research tool dedicated to the study of Iranian civilization in the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
Print Reference Sources
Civilizations of the Ancient Near East by Over 180 essays are collected in this reference set, examining the cultures of the ancient Near East from the Bronze Age to the Hellenistic era. It describes the physical world of the ancient Near East, evaluates its impact on succeeding cultures, and reconstructs its cultural contexts.
Publication Date: 1995-06-01
Dictionary of the Ancient Near East by Selected by Choice magazine in 2000 as an Outstanding Academic Book The earliest farms, cities, governments, legal codes, and alphabets developed in the ancient Near East. Four major religions--Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam--began in the region. Ideas, inventions, and institutions spread to all parts of the globe from the urban centers of the ancient Egyptians, Syrians, Hittites, Assyrians, Babylonians, and other peoples of the biblical world. For good reason is the ancient Near East known as the cradle of civilization. The only single-volume dictionary to embrace the whole of the ancient Near East, this major reference work covers Anatolia, Mesopotamia, the Levant, and the Arabian peninsula from the earliest times, through the Old Testament period, until the fall of Babylon to the Persians in 539 B.C. From "Achaemenids" to "Ziwiye," "administration" to "ziggurat," in 500 concise, cross-referenced, and comprehensively indexed entries, the Dictionary of the Ancient Near East describes and explains the major ideas, institutions, places, peoples, and personalities that shaped the earliest development of Western civilization. Architecture, literature, economics, labor, religion, and society are all extensively treated, as are such subjects as crime, dreams, drunkenness, shipwrecks, and sexual behavior (and misbehavior). Each entry, written by a scholar of international standing, includes up-to-date bibliographic references. The book is richly illustrated with photographs, maps, and plans of major sites. Contributors: Douglas Baird (Lecturer in Near Eastern Archaeology, University of Liverpool), Jeremy Black (University Lecturer in Akkadian, Oriental Institute, Oxford University), Paul T. Collins (freelance lecturer in the Ancient Near East, London), Stephanie Dalley (Shillito Fellow in Assyriology, Oriental Institute, Oxford University), Anthony Green (Lecturer in Near Eastern Archaeology, Free University of Berlin), Gwendolyn Leick (Lecturer in Anthropology, the American International University, London), Michael Macdonald (Research Fellow, Oriental Institute, Oxford University), Roger Matthews (Director, British Institute for Archaeology, Ankara), Gerald L. Mattingly (Lecturer, Johnson Bible College, Knoxville, Tennessee), Graham Philip (Lecturer in Archaeology, University of Durham), Geoffrey Summers (Lecturer in Archaeology, Middle East Technical University, Ankara).
Publication Date: 2000-03-30
Encyclopedia Judaica by Providing an exhaustive and organized overview of Jewish life and knowledge from the Second Temple period to the contemporary State of Israel, from Rabbinic to modern Yiddish literature, from Kabbalah to "Americana" and from Zionism to the contribution of Jews to world cultures, Encyclopaedia Judaica, Second Edition is important to scholars, general readers and students. With more than 22,000 signed entries on Jewish life, culture, history and religion, this second edition incorporates more than three decades of changes and the latest scholarship-such as new archaeological sites, theories and analytical methodologies. Featuring original work by top scholars representing all major universities and centres of research in Jewish studies, this invaluable set expands the scope and relevance of the original with some 2,200 brand-new entries.
Publication Date: 2006-12-12
Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East by Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East presents a clear, precise, and unbiased explanation of the people, places and events that have shaped the Middle East since 1800. From The Charge of the Light Brigade during the Crimean War and the Battle of Tobruk during World War II to the Arab-Israeli Conflict and the Yemen Civil War, the articles contained within the Encyclopedia will reveal the stories behind the headlines of today. Discover the educational background, beliefs, accomplishments, and families of individuals of historic prominence and local significance from Erwin Rommel to Golda Meir. Differences in interpretation and practice among the sects of the region's dominant religions and societies are made understandable while national and cultural identities are concisely and accurately depicted. Maps and detailed articles describe the Middle East and North Africa, from large urban centres to small rural communities, from oil producing nations to agricultural states, from industrial complexes to nomadic clans.
Publication Date: 1905-06-01
New Encyclopedia of Zionism and Israel by The Encyclopedia of Zionism and Israel was conceived by Dr. Emanuel Neuman. This updated edition expands on the first edition, including articles on Zionism, subject matter on Israel, and agricultural developments in the Yishuv and Israel. Illustrated. Two volumes.
Publication Date: 1994-12-01
An Historical Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict by This first encyclopedia about the Arab-Israeli conflict by a team of experts gives detailed and comprehensive coverage of the important political, military, and diplomatic events, places, people, groups, agreements, treaties, and issues that have marked this controversial and complex regional and international conflict. A team of authorities with varying backgrounds, interests, disciplines, and perspectives gives special attention to the period since the adoption of the Palestine partition plan in November 1947, the first Arab-Israeli War up to the Israel-PLO Declaration of Principles and subsequent agreements, as well as the Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty and implementation process. Hundreds of entries arranged alphabetically provide hard-to-find information and point to sources for further reading and research. Extensive cross-references, a chronology of important events, a bibliographical essay, and a general index further enhance this basic research tool. Designed for broad interdisciplinary use by scholars, students, policymakers, and general readers of varying backgrounds, interests, disciplines, and perspectives in college, university, institutional, and public libraries.
Publication Date: 1996-03-11
The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land by Organized alphabetically, Carta s New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land (Volumes 1-4) describes and analyzes archaeological excavations carried out during the past century or more in the Holy Land, on both sides of the Jordan. With 365 articles prepared by more than 200 scholars from around the world, this comprehensive encyclopedia presents a rich and extensive body of archaeological material. An extensive bibliography is appended to each article. No other work compares with the scope and authority of the New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land (Volumes 1-4), or its scholarly significance."
Publication Date: 1993-04-01
The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the near East by This comprehensive five-volume work analyzes the archaeological and linguistic data that pertain to the broad cultural milieu of the ancient Near East, the crossroads of three of the world's most influential religions--Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Ranging from prehistoric times up to theearly centuries of the rise of Islam, the work covers the civilizations of Syria-Palestine, Mesopotamia, Anatolia, Iran, Arabia, Cyprus, Egypt, and the coastal regions of North and East Africa. It includes 1,125 alphabetically arranged entries on sites, languages, material culture, archaeologicalmethods, organizations and institutions, and major excavators and scholars of the field. This one-of-a-kind, accessibly written reference brings new breadth to the study of archaeology in the biblical world, making it a valuable resource not only to scholars and students of archaeology, but also tothose with an interest in ancient art and architecture, languages, history, and religion.
Publication Date: 1996-11-28
The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World by This unique reference is a comprehensive encyclopedia dedicated to the institutions, religion, politics, and culture in Muslim societies throughout the world. Placing particular emphasis on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World containsover 750 articles in four volumes on Muslims in the Arab heartland as well as South and Southeast Asia, Europe, and the Americas.An invaluable resource, the Encyclopedia offers extensive comparative and systematic analyses of Islamic beliefs, institutions, movements, practices, and peoples on an international scale. The alphabetically arranged articles range from brief 500-word essays to major interpretive and synthetictreatment of topics such as the Islamic state, pilgrimage, law, marriage, and foreign relations. Related entries cover areas of general interest such as social and political movements, women, Muslim minorities, human rights, Islam in the West, and interreligious affairs. And prominent figures thathad a lasting impact on Islam are explored including Muhammad, Aga Khan, Malcolm X, Muhammad Iqbal, 'Ali Shari 'ati, Ayatollah Khomeini, and Hasan al-Turabi.Truly multidisciplinary, this work reflects the breadth and depth of contemporary scholarship in Islamic studies. Combining the tools of the humanities and social sciences to examine the interrelationship of religion, politics, and culture in Muslim societies, it explains the changing realities ofMuslim life. Its unique focus makes The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World an invaluable reference for scholars and students of many disciplines, government and media analysts, and anyone interested in increasing their understanding of Islamic politics and culture.
Publication Date: 2009-04-03