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Citing Sources

MLA Style

MLA style is the citation style of the Modern Language Association. It is most commonly used in the liberal arts and humanities.

Citation Examples

Print MLA Manual

MLA Style Resources

MLA Citation Examples: Books (Print)

Book (Single author)

Beverley, John. Against Literature. U of Minnesota P, 1993.

Book (Multiple authors)

Heathcote, Simon, and Laura Moffatt. Contemporary Church
. Wiley, 2007.

NOTE: If there are three or more authors: Heathcote, Simon, et al.

Book (Edited)

Charney, Leo, and Vanessa R. Schwartz, editors. Cinema and the
     Invention of Modern Life
. U of California P, 1995.

Chapter in Book

Ahmedi, Fauzia Erfan. "Welcoming Courtyards: Hospitality, Spirituality,
     and Gender." Feminism and Hospitality: Gender in the Host/Guest
, edited by Maurice Hamington, Lexington Books, 2010, pp. 109-24.


Citing Ancient Sources (i.e. primary literature)

Classics uses a specialized, precise method of citiation. The proper format for citing classical texts:

[Author], [Title] [Book/Section.(Poem, if applicable)].[Line #s cited]



Homer, Iliad 18.141-143.
Sophocles, Antigone 904-922.
Horace, Odes 4.1.1-4.
Vergil, Eclogues 1.1-10.


Cicero, First Catilinarian 14.2. Plato, Symposium 215a3-218b7.

Omitting Name of Work: If an author wrote only one work, you may omit the name of the work; for example: Herodotus 9.1; rather than Herodotus, Histories 9.1.

Abbreviations: Most classical authors and texts do have standard abbreviations that you may want to employ; these can be on page xxix ff. of the Oxford Classical Dictionary (DE5 .O9 2003) .

Capitalization: If you are generically citing a specific book in a work, capitalize both elements (Book Eighteen or Book 18 or Book XVIII); generic references, such as “several books in the Iliad,” should not be capitalized.

NOTE: If you are including a parenthetical citation at the end of a sentence – e.g. (Homer, Odyssey 1.1-3) – the period always follows the citation.

MLA Citation Examples: Articles (Print)

Scholarly Journal Article (Single author)

Leonard, Miriam. "Oedipus in the Accusative: Derrida and Levinas."
     Comparative Literature Studies, vol. 43, no. 3, 2006, pp. 224-51.

Scholarly Journal Article (Multiple authors)

Prendergast, Catherine, and Nancy Abelmann. "Alma Mater: College, Kinship,
     and the Pursuit of Diversity." Social Text, vol. 24, no. 1, Spring 2006, pp. 37-53.

NOTE: If there are three or more authors: Prendergast, Catherine, et al.

Magazine Article

Lacayo, Richard. “Kids are Us!” Time, 23 Sept. 2002, pp. 68-70.

Newspaper Article

Hall, Christopher. “Reliving the 1200’s With Sweat, Muscle, and No-Tech Tools.”
     New York Times, 18 Aug. 2002, p. B27.

Encyclopedia Article

"Magna Carta." The New Encyclopedia Britannica. 15th ed., 1998.

McQuade, Molly. "Dickinson, Emily." The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature. 2005.

MLA Citation Examples: Electronic Resources

Article in an Online Scholarly Journal That Also Appears in Print

Langereis, Jeroen D., and Marian I. de Longe. "Invasive Disease Caused by
     Nontypeable Haemophilus Influenzae." Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 21, no. 10,
     2015, pp. 1711-8. Academic Search Complete, doi:10.3201/eid2110.150004.
     Accessed 8 Feb. 2009.

 Article in an Online-only Scholarly Journal

Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and
     Future Directions.” Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only
 vol. 6, no. 2, 2008,
     Accessed 20 May 2009.

Listserv, Discussion Group, or Blog

Editor, screen name, author, or compiler name (if available). “Posting Title.” Name of
Version number (if available), Name of institution/organization affiliated with
     the site (sponsor or publisher), URL. Date of access.

Salmar1515 [Sal Hernandez]. “Re: Best Strategy: Fenced Pastures vs. Max Number
     of Rooms?” BoardGameGeek, 29 Sept. 2008,
     best-strategy-fenced-pastures-vs-max-number-rooms. Accessed 5 Apr. 2009.


@tombrokaw. "SC demonstrated why all the debates are the engines of this campaign."
     Twitter, 22 Jan. 2012, 3:06 a.m.,


Give the author of the message, followed by the subject line in quotation marks. State to whom to message was sent with the phrase, “Received by” and the recipient’s name. Include the date the message was sent. Use standard capitalization.

Kunka, Andrew. "Re: Modernist Literature." Received by John Watts, 15 Nov. 2000.

YouTube Video

"8 Hot Dog Gadgets put to the Test.” YouTube, uploaded by Crazy Russian Hacker,
     6 Jun. 2016,

Comment on a Website or Article

Not Omniscent Enough. Comment on "Flight Attendant Tells Passenger to ‘Shut Up’
     After Argument After Pasta." ABC News, 9 Jun 2016, 4:00 p.m.,

 Web Site (Institutional/Organizational Author)

Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory. Purdue U, 28 Nov. 2003, Accessed 10 May 2006.

Web Site (Personal Author)

Lundman, Susan. "How to Make Vegetarian Chili." eHow,
     make-vegetarian-chili.html. Accessed 6 July 2015.

Image (Including a Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph) found online

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid. 
     Museo Macional del Prado,
     family-of-carlos-iv/f47898fc-aa1c-48f6-a779-71759e417e74. Accessed 22 May 2006.

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