Skip to Main Content

Information Literacy Instruction

APA Style

APA style is the citation style of the American Psychological Association. It is widely used in the social and behavioral sciences.

Print APA Manual

Online APA Style Resources

Citation Examples: Books (Print)

Book (Single author)

Lightman, A. P. (2002). The diagnosis. New York: Vintage Books.

Book (Multiple authors)

Fubini, D., Price, C., & Zollo, M. (2007). Mergers: Leadership, performance and corporate
New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Book (Edited)

Dickens, J. (Ed.). (1995). Family outing: A guide for parents of gays, lesbians and
. London: Peter Owen.

Essay or Chapter in Edited Book

Cohen, B.J. (2006). The macrofoundations of monetary power. In D.M. Andrews (Ed.),
     International monetary power (pp. 31-50). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Citation Examples: Articles (Print)

Journal Article (Print)

O'Connell, D. C., & Kowal, S. (2003). Psycholinguistics: A half century of monologism.
     The American Journal of Psychology, 116, 191-212.
Hall, R. E. (2000). Marriage as vehicle of racism among women of color. Psychology: A Journal
     of Human Behavior, 37
(2), 29-40.
Koremenos, B., Lipson, C., & Snidal, D. (2001). The rational design of international institutions.
     International Organization, 55, 761-799.
NOTE: Issue number is included only if each issue begins on page 1.

Magazine Article

Lacayo, R. (2002, Sept. 23). Kids are us! Time, 160, 68-70.

Newspaper Article

Hall, C. (2002, August 18). Reliving the 1200’s with sweat, muscle, and no-tech
     tools. New York Times, B27.

Encyclopedia Article

Warren, S. A. (1977). Mental retardation and environment. In International encyclopedia of
     psychiatry, psychology, psychoanalysis, and neurology
(Vol. 7, 202-207).
     New York: Aesculapius Publishers.

Citation Examples: Electronic Resources

Electronic Resources

  • Many scholarly publishers have begun assigning digital object intentifiers (DOI). A DOI is a unique alpha-numeric string that identifies content and provides a permanent link to the article's internet location. When a DOI is available, include it instead of the URL.
  • You do not have to include the database name unless the book or document is extremely hard to find. If you inlcude the database name, do not include the database URL.

Journal article (From library database with DOI assigned)

Schimpff, H. (2010). State education finance and governance profile: Kentucky.
     Peabody Journal Of Education, 85(1), 70-73. doi:10.1080/01619560903523839

Journal article (From library database with no DOI assigned)

Sillick, T.J., & Schutte, N.S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between
     perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2),
     38-48. Retrieved from
Park, J. When race and religion collide: The effect of religion on interracial friendship during
      college.Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, Vol 5(1), Mar 2012, 8-21. Retrieved from

Newspaper article (From library database)

Smith, A. (2005, February 5). Fed official suggests early end to stimulus effort.
     The New York Times. Retrieved from

Online Book

Thorpe, W.H. (1956). Learning and instinct in animals.
     Retrieved from

Web Site

Tufts University Archives and Special Collections. (1999). Women’s bodies, women’s
     property. Retrieved September 30, 2003 from Tufts University Digital Collections
     and Archives web site: