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REL 151 Religions of Africa: Cite Your Sources


The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) covers a variety of topics from manuscript preparation and publication to grammar, usage, and documentation. The material in this resource focuses primarily on one of the two CMS documentation styles: the Notes-Bibliography System (NB), which is used by those in literature, history, and the arts. The other documentation style, the Author-Date System, is nearly identical in content but slightly different in form and is preferred in the sciences and social sciences.

In addition to consulting the The Chicago Manual of Style, for more information students may also find it useful to consult Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. This manual, which presents what is commonly known as the "Turabian" citation style, follows the two CMS patterns of documentation but offers slight modifications suited to student texts.

This guide is based on The Chicago Manual of Style 16th ed. (University of Chicago Press, 2010). Examples are shown for the Notes-Bibliography system recommended for literature, history, and the arts.

Online Chicago/Turabian Style Resources

Citation Examples: Books (Print)

Book (Single author)

Yow, Valerie Raleigh. Recording Oral History: A Guide for the Humanities and Social Sciences.
     Walnut Creek, CA: Alta Mira Press, 2005.

Book (Multiple authors)

Adams, Don, and Arlene Goldbard. Creative Community: The Art of Cultural Development.
     New York: Rockefeller Foundation, Creativity & Culture Division, 2001.
NOTE: Three authors would be listed in the following format: LastNameA, FirstNameA, FirstNameB LastNameB, and FirstNameC LastNameC. If an item is written or edited by four to ten individuals, all of them are included in the bibliographic entry, but will be formatted as LastNameA, FirstNameA, et al. in the corresponding note.

Book (Edited or translated)

D’Agata, John, ed. The Making of the American Essay. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.
Lahiri, Jhumpa. In Other Words. Translated by Ann Goldstein. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2016.

Chapter or Essay in Book

Willson, Jr., Robert F. "William Shakespeare's Theater." In The Greenwood Companion to
     Shakespeare: A Comprehensive Guide for Students,
edited by Joseph Rosenblum,
     47-64. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2005.

Citation Examples: Articles (Print)

Scholarly Journal

Simmons, Carolyn, and Karen Becker-Olsen. "Achieving Marketing Objectives through
     Social Sponsorships." Journal of Marketing 70, no. 4 (2006): 154-169.

Magazine Article

Reed, Stanley. "Seeing Past the War." Business Week, August 21, 2006.

Newspaper Article

Seward, Zachary. "Colleges Expand Early Admissions." Wall Street Journal,
     December 14, 2006, eastern edition.

Citation Examples: Electronic Resources

Access dates are not required by Chicago style. However, some professors may require access dates for citations of online resources. If in doubt, ask your professor.

Journal Article

Frank, Alison. "The Petroleum War of 1910: Standard Oil, Austria, and the Limits of the
     Multinational Corporation." American Historical Review 114, no. 1 (Feb. 2009): 16-41.
Frank, Alison. "The Petroleum War of 1910: Standard Oil, Austria, and the Limits of the
     Multinational Corporation." American Historical Review 114, no. 1 (Feb. 2009): 16-41.
     Accessed September 17, 2011.
NOTE: A DOI forms a permanent URL that begins . This URL is preferred, but if it is not available use the shortest, most stable form of the url.
Thomas, Trevor M. "Wales: Land of Mines and Quarries." Geographical Review 46, no. 1
     (Jan. 1956): 59-81.

Online Book

Hartog, Hendrick. Man and Wife in America: A History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
     Press, 2002.;;idno=heb04365.

Web Site

University of Virginia. "The National Marriage Project." Last modified September 8, 2010.
If unable to determine a publication date or date of revision or modification, include an access date.
University of Virginia. "The National Marriage Project." Accessed September 8, 2012.

Image (from an image database)

Sullivan, Louis H. The Security Bank, 1907. Owatonna, Minnesota. Accessed August 12, 2007.

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